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代写英国论文需要注意的引用问题(2)

时间:2018-09-18 17:11来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

      According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
 
      这里的 “students” 被替换为 “first learners”,名词替换的同时,也表达了“it was their first time”,表达更加简练。因此,常用名词和动词的积累尤其重要。
 
 
      2.语态替换
 
      语态包含主动与被动,两者之间的切换就好比中文的“把”字句变“被”字句。作用在于可快速识别动宾关系的同时,再一次强调这一层关系,使重点信息的提炼一步到位。
 
      原句:
 
      “Individual identity cannot be fixed and pinned down to any static unitary definition; identity is always a flux, always in process, never finished.”
 
      转述:
 
      There is no such uniformed standard to define individual identity, and it is more of a process that is always changing (Mohanty, 2006).
 
      将“cannot be fixed and pinned down to” 的被动语态替换为由 "define" 作谓语动词的主动语态,不仅转换了句型也精炼地表达了identity 不能被单一标准所定义的这一含义。
 
      需要注意的是,语态的改变往往也意味着句型会相应地发生变化。因此,吃透原文的句型结构是使用语态切换进行paraphrasing的关键。
 
      3.词性转换
 
      最常见的词性转换总围绕着动词或形容词的名词化展开。动词名词化的好处在于能将复杂句转换为简单句,浓缩语意的同时也一针见血直指重点信息;形容词或副词的名词化则是摘取原句中并不起眼的侧面信息,作为强调。
 
      原句:
 
      “‘Femininity’ and ‘masculinity’” have no basis in biology, but are constructed by the child’s familial relationships.”
 
      转述:
 
      According to Mohanty (2006), people are not born to be feminine or masculine; on the other hand, one's childhood experience with family help to shape his or her characteristics in this regard.
 
      此处的主语"'feminity' and 'masculinity'"和宾语“basis”被转化为了相应的形容词“born to be feminine or masculine”,完成了主体信息由物到人的转换,从抽象概念有了具体的所指。这种方法尤其适用于词汇量不够充足的选手们。在原词的基础上做变化,使已经掌握的单词产生乘数效应。(责任编辑:quanlei_cai)


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