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英国论文格式范文:性别歧视对员工绩效的影响(4)

时间:2018-03-02 18:58来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
 
LITERATURE REVIEW:文献综述
 
Gender discrimination is one is an apparent issue in the society of Pakistan, Pakistan got independence in 1947 and since it was once a part of India the Indian influence exists still today that is why equality of genders is an issue and to resolve this issue a culture change would have to be applied still Pakistan in more advanced than its neighbor in terms of female rights. Discrimination itself is a phenomenon that that is found worldwide take America for example where inequality is ever more present due to discrimination (Darity Jr & Mason, 1998) and brithish labor market is no different either there also exist gender discrimination as in UK women's compensation is lower than that of a man (Wright & Ermisch, 1991), simply we can say that discrimination is a biased behavior towards certain individuals. Scholars have identified discrimination as the situation where employee or group of employees are made target of prejudice (Major, Quinton, & Schmader, 2003) and the target is deprived if the opportunities that are available to rest, furthermore it point to the tools for demonstrating and establishing the social relation of "dominance" and "oppression" (Kreiger, 1999). According to United Nations "Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection", so the discrimination's eventually affect an individual or group by excluding him/them from privileges that others are enjoying. Among the different kinds of discriminations like racial/ethnic, age, gender, identity, cast, employment, disability, reverse, religious for this study gender discrimination that occurs at the workplace is of interest. Discrimination at a workplace is that when employees as individuals or in groups are not treated fairly as compared to others and the reason is not their professional capability to perform specific task as assigned to them. In this study the focus would be on evaluating keeping in mind the social and cultural differences the extent of existence of gender discrimination in the Pakistani work environment. Gender discrimination is a discrimination which is unbalanced approach towards a person because of his/her gender, furthermore Gender discrimination is attitude and belief of the discriminator of giving or refraining to give rights to the employee due to his/her gender, it also can be behavior, policy, interaction, action and procedure which affects the work of an employee negatively by creating a disparate treatment or creation of intimidating work environment or hostile environment which is according to sex (Carr, et al., 2000).Discrimination on the base of gender hampers performance by affecting the level of professional self-esteem and confidence, career satisfaction and being secluded in a work environment affecting their performance (Carr, Szalacha, Barnett, Caswell, & Inui, 2003). In developing countries this practice is prevalent and the main target of this kind of discrimination are women although gender harassment doesn't mean that only women are prone to this type of discrimination but mostly women are the victims of such type of discrimination.(责任编辑:cinq)


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