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英国硕士论文:外国直接投资-印度和中国的比较(8)

时间:2017-12-27 15:43来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
3.3.1. History of FDI in India
The generational explanation of history is given as follows after India's independence: during 1947 to 48 there was the British owned the private foreign capital through the national policies resolution which is Swadeshi movement & Industrial policy. In the next generation i.e. from 1949 to 1953 foreign investments where far away from trio of domestic business house with foreign capital as well as with the government - nationalist sentiments. The second Economic plan was launched in 1957 as industrialization through import substitution and encouraging private investment. Some of the selected industries got foreign collaboration and JV mostly manufacturing companies which are retained participation in India' FDI since 1960s, the devaluation of rupee encouraged the socialist idealism banks and foreign oil majors nationalized after late 1960s. After almost 8 years in 1968 the foreign investment board had encouraging investments on there own terms and conduction. In the year 1973as per the Foreign Exchange Act (FERA) which launched a new article that all firms should come together for their foreign equity, holding 40% of foreign equity to be considered as Indian companies due to which IBM as well as coca cola is exited. After seven years of strict vigilance on FDI, from the year 1980 licensing procedures were liberalized to softened, technology transfer and royalty payments relaxed, foreign investment was encouraged wherever possible. During 1900-s rupee value got down, withdrawal of NRI money, India turned to IMF; there was liberalization on trade regime and regulatory frame work. Many of the industries were invited by FDI and in some cases limit was increased from 51% to 100%. The service sector was again opened for FDI. The political instability after 1995 had started but a perception towards FDI had changed due to changes in government kept focus on FDI.
 
3.3.2. History of FDI in China
China has joined the joint venture with other countries in the year1979, and by the year 1986 china became fully foreign owned enterprise. It was divided into four zones namely Shantou, Shenzhen, and Xiamen in the year 1980. After four years in 1984 it was found that china's economic zone has fourteen cities and whole china combined by late 1900's. There was a rapid economic growth in reform period due to profusion of labour and its low costs, Rapid expansion of China's domestic market at the same time plays important role of overseas Chinese for increasing integration with world economy. The marketing effects are generally obtained by imports and exports in both bilateral countries. FDI is very essential for developing countries for Off setting the capital deficiency, Acquiring advanced technology, Gaining production know-how, Promoting exports as well as to
 
Table - 2: shows FDI in India-China products Trade (in million US Dollars). (Source: Prema, C. A. 2009, p.379)(责任编辑:quanlei_cai)


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