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新闻应该坚持的自由程度探讨

时间:2016-02-22 15:36来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

新闻自由被视为自由民主国家的一个关键属性, 它提供许多民主目标包括告知公众和监督政府. 建立在这个假设上,政府新闻应该坚持的自由程度有着持久的辩论。包括自由主义理论,关键角度的多元化和结构化的多元化都是争论的焦点。然而,尽管有理论依据证实民主新闻辩论是很重要的,意识到理论与现实世界之间的差距也是至关重要的。本文认为:如果不考虑媒体系统的实际情况,纯粹提倡自由媒体市场或国家是无用的。尽管如此,在理论层面上,本文认为民主新闻市场可能更糟:媒体系统被市场引导却没有内在责任或者想要参与公众之中,而高压政权总是面临着民主的阻力。
 
The free press has been perceived as a key attribute of liberal democracies, for it serves many democratic goals including informing the public and monitoring the government. Building upon this presumption, there are continuous debates on the extent of freedom from the government the press should uphold. Theories including liberalism, the critical perspective, pluralism and structured pluralism (Curran and Seat on 2003; Hallin2000; Thompson 1995 ) all played a part in this debate. However, while having theoretical bases for the debates on democratic journalism  is important, it is also crucial to recognize the gap between theoretical models and the real world.  This essay argues: it is of little use to advocate either a free media market or a state - intervened media system without taking into account the context. Nonetheless, on a theoretical level, this essay suggests that the market could be worse for democratic journalism: a media system driven by the market has no intrinsic responsibility or interest to engage the public in democratic participation, whereas oppressive regimes always faced democratic resistance s 1 . Other than looking at the classical debates of liberalism and the critical perspective, the essay would also look at the processes of news making and audience’s responses and how regional differences must be taken into account.
 
The classical liberal theory  argues that a free press separated from the state  would bring  about democratic journalism; however, many of the liberalist assumptions of the role of  media are no longer true ,  if they ever were . The term “democratic journalism” refers to  the type of journalism entailing a political responsibility to encourage civic participation;  different from “free press”, democratic journalism endeavors in helping to create and  maintain a democratic society.  The liberal model first emerged in the mid - Victoria era, or  even earlier (Curran and Sea ton 2003: 341). This classic model argues that the press has  four key functions  in the society: 1) Inform the public, 2) scrutinize the government, 3)  stage public debates and 4) express a wide variety of public opinion (341). The media,  therefore, is considered as the “watchdog” of the government, free from influences of the  state and political parties, and exist as independent agents  for the freedom of speech (Hallin2000:90) . The liberal model also  portrays the state as  the “ enemy ” (Waisbord2007: 117) o f democratic press, as if all sorts of state intervention are bad for the media.  Had the free press really fulfilled these  democratic  functions envisaged by the liberal  model, there  would be little doubt that the free press is  also  a democratic press. However,  in reality, much have changed since the model was first  constructed in the Victorian era; also, researches have shown the press often does not represent the public, nor does it have  a responsibility to encourage democratic participation.
(责任编辑:anne)


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