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英国论文代写—成本导向的市场策略

时间:2015-01-31 21:18来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
从他的文献研究中,波特创造了波特五力分析法和一般竞争战略完整框架。五力分析法的长期发展带来了这样一个事实:这些力量成为该行业竞争的决定因素。这五种力量分别是:新产品出现带来的压力、现有企业之间的竞争、替代产品出现带来的压力、购买者的议价能力、供应商的议价能力。此外,五力分析法被公司用于测量同行业的竞争水平,除此之外,它是作为了解行业与另一个行业相比较的扎实的第一步,也决定行业的盈利能力,因为它们影响了该行业产品的价格、成本和公司的需求投资。
 
为了有足够的竞争力,一个寻求盈利的正常公司必须明白它们在行业中是如何运行以及它们又是如何在特定情况下影响公司。因此,三个一般竞争战略被实施来建立战略规划以应对五种竞争力量。波特(1980)提出,如果公司采用他的三个通用竞争战略中的任意一个,他们能够超越不采用这些策略的竞争对手。推荐通用战略是成本导向策略、差异化策略和焦点策略。
 
成本导向策略—Cost Leadership Strategy
 
这种类型的策略意味着帮助公司在同行业中实现整体最低成本框架的目标在公司中,这个目标可以通过应用高效的业务系统来实现。高效业务系统可创建成本效益和规模经济,允许公司成为最低成本的生产商。通常情况下,经济学家认为,公司产品生产、新产品的发布或产品服务经验的增加都可减少产品生产、新产品发布和产品服务的成本。然而,仅在一个领域的业务,最低成本结构无法实现消减成本这一目标,它的要求是所有部门的成本都要降低。成本导向不仅帮助公司打败竞争对手,也增加了市场份额以及随附更好的利润率。

From his literature research, Porter found the complete framework of Porters Five Forces and Generic Strategies. The long development of Five Forces Analysis has brought to the fact that those forces become the determinants of the industry’s competition. These five forces are treat of new entry, rivalry among existing firms, treat from substitute products, bargaining power of buyers, and bargaining power of suppliers. Furthermore, five forces analysis is treated by the organization to measure the level of competition, besides that, it is used as a strong first step in understanding how one industry compares to another and also to determine industry profitability because they influence the prices, costs, and required investment of firm in an industry.
 
In order to be competitive enough, a normal company that seeks profitability would have to understand how they work in its industry and how they affect the company in its particular situation. Therefore, Three Generic Strategies were implemented to establish a strategic agenda for dealing with these five forces. Porter (1980) proposes that if firms pursue any of his three recommended generic competitive strategies they will be able to outperform competitors who do not pursue such strategies. The recommended strategies are cost leadership, differentiation, and focus strategy.
 
成本导向策略—Cost Leadership Strategy
 
This type of strategy meant for organizations that has goal to achieve the overall lowest cost structure in an industry. This can be fulfilled through applying efficient business system in an organization. An efficient business system creates cost efficiencies and economic of scales to allow a firm to become the lowest-cost producer. Normally, economists believed that an increase in accumulated experience of a firm in producing or distributing a product or service could decrease the cost of producing or distributing a product or service. However, lowest-cost structure cannot be achieved by cutting the cost alone in one area of business; it demands a reduction in costs on all the departments. Cost leadership not only helps a firm to take down the competitors but also increase market share along with better profit margins.
 
Furthermore, this strategy is believed to work best in the certain circumstances. Firstly, the cost leadership strategy can be applied when the price competition among rival sellers is especially strong. Secondly, the strategy is suitable for standardized product or readily available from other sellers in the industry. Thirdly, it works best when organization could have few ways to achieve product differentiation, so that buyers get very sensitive to price differences. Unfortunately, this strategy has weakness since it concerns cost reduction rather than quality of the product that leads to decline in the popularity. It is also supported by the fact that nowadays customers are really critical about the quality of the product that makes more customers choose quality rather than cost conscious. In addition, this strategy will become ineffective with an increase in overall cost of a firm’s production inputs. Automatically, an organization will find it hard to hold a cost advantage over a longer time in business environment that keeps changing rapidly.
 
差异化策略—Differentiation Strategy
 
Nowadays business environment is really competitive, marketers cannot achieve its goals unless they hold some differential advantage over their rivals. In recent years, much attention has been committed by the marketers to maintain specific competencies; uniqueness could be a strength that makes an organization looks better from its competitors in the eyes of customers. Therefore, uniqueness can be used in gaining a competitive advantage. Obviously, the distinctive competencies also bring incremental value to the market offering when compared to the other offerings to the customers. In consequence, an organization must use different sources of differentiation at different times to build an importance image to its customers. For examples, better features and quality, efficient distribution, research and development, better image of product or service, and also the most important improved customer services. Marketers have realized how customer services could create the business’ image and also build the strong relationships with customers. In the opinion of Thompson and Strickland (1999, cited et Sahaf, 2008) differentiation strategies work best in the some markets circumstances where there are many ways to differentiate the company’s offerings from that of rivals and many buyers perceive these differences as having value. In addition, it is also match with the market where buyer needs and uses of the item or service are diverse, few rival firms are following a similar differentiation approach, and technological chance is fast-paced and competition revolves around evolving product features.(责任编辑:BUG)


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