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marketing留学论文:关系营销策略研究

时间:2015-01-29 09:20来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
marketing留学论文

关系营销是营销策略是工业市场机制或消费者营销机制实践中的市场营销规划的里程碑(Tseng,2007)。据摩根和亨特定义(1994),将关系营销定义为旨在建立、开发和维护与客户间良好关系的所有营销活动总和。根据Hougaard和Bjerre(2002)的定义,关系营销是旨在建立,维持和发展有竞争力且有利可图的客户双赢关系的一种公司行为。由于盈利关系与客户生命周期的基础相关,也可能在某些生命周期阶段有损失,Hougaard和Bjerre(2002)认为,就营销管理必须注意的三个不同的客观因素,即发起和管理客户关系,维护和加强客户关系、处理这些终端关系。
 
不同程度的关系持久性,最终导致客户经历不同程度的消费模式,产生不同的结果,不同关系满意度和对不同营销策略的忠诚度(Wulf et al . 2001年)。与传统营销相比,关系营销以顾客为核心建立关系的现象,最终结果是实现各方的长期互利交换。关系营销手段使客户作为你的合作伙伴,他们会给你带来长期利益,通过对产品的购买展示他们的忠诚度,通过未来从那些忠实的顾客获得利润,公司可收获利益(Bowen and Shoemaker,2003)。关系营销的主要目的是获得最大价值的客户,但顾客忠诚度是最基本的。

Relationship marketing is the milestone of marketing strategy planning whether it would be in industrial marketing mechanism or consumer marketing mechanism (Tseng, 2007). According to Morgan and Hunt (1994), relationship marketing was defined as all the marketing activities that are designed to establishing, developing, and maintaining successful relational relationship with customers. According to Hougaard and Bjerre (2002) relationship marketing is company behavior with the purpose of establishing, maintaining and developing competitive and profitable customer relationship to the benefit of both parties. Due to profitable relationship with customers on a lifetime basis may also create loss in some stages during the lifetime, Hougaard and Bjerre (2002) argued that marketing management must pay attention to three different objectives in terms of initiating and managing customer relationship, maintaining and enhancing customer relationship and handling those relationship termination.
 
There are different levels of relationship duration that would ultimately result in different levels of consumption patterns experienced by customers, producing different results, satisfaction and loyalty with different relationship marketing tactics (Wulf et al. 2001). In contrast with traditional marketing, relationship marketing has the core phenomenon of building relationship with customers which will ultimately result in achieving long-term mutual benefits for all parties involved in this exchange. Relationship marketing means making customers as your partners where they will give you monetary benefits in longer time period by showing their loyalty through purchases and companies get benefit through their future secured revenues by their those loyal customers (Bowen and Shoemaker, 2003). The main aim of relationship marketing is to gain the maximum value of a customer but with the essence of customer loyalty. According to Bowen and Shoemaker (2003) relationship marketing relies on continuity of partnership of loyal customers because they are not price sensitive but are quality sensitive and they don’t care about the price cuts over time.
 
1关系营销策略—Relationship marketing tactics:
 
There are many ways identified by the marketers to implement relationship marketing tactics, which are expected to have the long term impact on retaining customers and building customer loyalty by giving them value. According to Bansal, Taylor and James (2005) relationship marketing tactics are executed through service quality, price perception; alternative attractiveness, and so on. Based on the early theories, certain relationship marketing tactics which are considered of importance in service industry, such as service quality, price perception, and brand image, will be focused in the following parts.
 
1.1服务质量— Service Quality
 
Products and services are taken combine as commodities in business setting but both have different features. Products have physical features whereas compared to that services are features of intangibility heterogeneity, being produced and consumed simultaneously. Services can’t be stocked for consumption in some future time period. According to Gronroos (1990) a service is a process consisting of a series of more or less intangible activities that normally, but not necessarily always, takes place in interactions between the customer and service employees and/or physical resources or goods and/or systems of the service provider, which provided as solutions to customer problems”.
 
According to his perception, service is same as processes where both service provider and customers can interact marketing needs the interaction of both parties as a basic ingredient (gronoos, 2000). Service provider could have loyal customer by delivering services as per their need, this will make (goroon, 2000). Service quality is been taken as the overall excellent and superior interaction with one service provider than others in competition (Parasuraman et al. 1988). But it is critical aspect to judge as customer's perception may vary them loyal in long run which will ensure company’s profits in future. Mostly quality of the service is taken as good due to the positive interaction between both parties (goroon, 2000). Service quality is been taken as the overall excellent and superior interaction with one service provider than others in competition (Parasuraman et al. 1988).But it is critical aspect to judge as customer's perception may vary. Peculiar attributes of service quality make it more complex to evaluate a service than a product quality evaluation. There are many ways proposed by many researchers to evaluate a service quality.
 
A famous model SERVQUAL (developed by Parasuramna et al. 1988), measure the differences between what customers expect and perceive cross the following five determinants as follows.
 
Tangibles: Appearance of physical facilities, equipment, employees and communication materials from a service company.
 
Reliability: A service company’s ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately.
 
Assurance: employees’ knowledge and behavior about courtesy and ability to convey trust and confidence.
 
Responsiveness: A service company is willing to help customers and provide punctual services.
 
Empathy: A service company provides care and individualized attention to its customers, as well as having convenient operating hours.
 
Based on the previous literature, according to goroon 2000, there are 7 criteria’s of perceived good service quality,Professionalism.
 
1.2技能—Skills
 
Professionalism and skills are outcome related and technical quality dimension. Reputation and image related and fulfills a filtering function; whereas the rest of five are processes related and present the functional quality dimension. In competitive environment, the most common feature to be succeeded is to deliver the high service quality.
 
1.3价格认知— Price Perception
 
Customer buy products and services by money and that monetary cost is major element that effect consumer buying decision. The matter that how much will customer pay depends on the perceived price relying on the product/service provider and those price perceptions will be different for different customers. Sometimes high price negatively affect purchase decision (peng and wang 2006).customers often relate it to the price searching and are attracted by high quality products at competitive prices. While it is also observed that customers judge prices by relating it to service quality and that quality generates satisfaction and dissatisfaction based on equity principle. The customer make transaction if he finds that price as fair this price perception is measured on two dimensions: one is the reasonability (how the price is perceived by customer) and other is value for money (relative status of the provider in comparison to price).(cheng,2008)Literature evident the influence of price perception on customer satisfaction and trust (Oliver, 1997; Peng and Wang, 2006; Cheng et al., 2008; Kim et al., 2008) and that the switching occurs because of high perceived price or other pricing techniques (Peng and Wang, 2006). so this becomes highly important for firms to manage price effectively if they want their customers to stay with them and buy their products to be profitable e.g. carrying out attractive pricing, offering reasonable prices mix, lower prices without decreasing quality, etc.
 
1.3品牌形象— Brand Image
 
Brand concept has been frequently discussed in marketing literatures. Brand building is not only an important driving force for marketing physical products, it is also a vital issue for service firms. Brand image was defined by Keller (1993, p3) as the “perceptions about a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in consumers’ memory.” It is thought as the perception or mental picture of a brand formed and held in customers’ mind, through customers’ response, whether rational or emotional (Dobni and Zinkhan, 1990). According to Grönroos (2000, p.287), “A brand is not first built and then perceived by the customers. Instead, every step in the branding process, every brand massages, is separately perceived by customers and together add up to a brand image, which is formed in customers’ minds”. Therefore, brand image is consequence of how a customer perceives the relationship with a brand over time (Ibid).
 
The concept of relationship marketing within services displays the importance of one-to-one relationships between businesses and customers as well as relationships between consumers and the brands (O’Loughlin, Szmigin, and Turnbull, 2004). The development of a brand relationship with customers is based on a series of brand contacts experienced by customers (Grönroos, 2000). What customer perceives the brand image during such experience is critical issue for a service firm to realize. Furthermore, customers are likely to form brand image in mind from inexperience ways, such as word of mouth from other consumers, a company’s reputation in public, marketing communication, and so on. A positive brand image make it easier for a firm to convey its brand value to consumers, also generates favorable word of mouth among people; contrarily, a negative image affect people in opposite direction; a neutral or unfamiliar image may not cause any damage, but it does not increase the effectiveness of communication and word of mouth either (Ibid). The more customers consider a brand valuable, the more sales can be expected to be achieved (Ibid).
 
Therefore, a positive brand image is supposed to meet customer’s expectation and offer more benefits to customer, which may lead to customer satisfaction and trust.
 
2关系质量—Relationship Quality
 
Relationship Quality (RQ) emerged from the field of Relationship Marketing (RM). Due to the importance of relationship marketing in today’s businesses, relationship quality is essential for assessment of relationship strength and the satisfied degree of customer needs and expectations (Crosby & Evans & Cowles, 1990; Smith, 1998). Successful exchange events can finally lead to an enduring buyer-seller relationship if they are properly treated from both a buyer and a seller’s perspectives (Crosby et al., 1990). In some service contexts, since service is invisible and heterogeneous, customers would feel high uncertainty and risk in the transaction (Li and Ho, 2008). Whereas, good relationship quality could reduce service uncertainty and risk for the purpose of increasing customers’ reliability to develop long-term relationships (Crosby et al., 1990; Li and Ho, 2008). In other words, higher quality of relationship creates association between service providers and customers, and fosters long-term stable exchanges where both parties can gain mutual benefits (Singh, 2008).
 
Relationship quality does not have a widely accepted definition and measures (Singh, 2008).Various dimensions have been used to measure relationship quality within marketing researches. One attempt to conceptualize relationship quality has been proposed by Grosby etal. (1990), which viewed relationship quality as a high-order construct and should contain at least two dimensions: trust and satisfaction. Morgan and Hunt (1994) drew the commitment-trust theory by proposing that trust and commitment are two basic constructs for measuring relationship quality. By integrating different research viewpoint, Chakrabarty,Whitten and Green (2007) discussed that relationship quality is measured in terms of trust, commitment, culture, interdependence, and communication. Otherwise, Lages et al. (2005), from a perspective of business organization rather than consumers, suggested that relationship quality reflected the intensity of information sharing, communication quality, long-term orientation and satisfaction with the relationship between the exporter and importer.(责任编辑:BUG)


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