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市场营销论文浅析视图营销和战略营销

时间:2015-02-12 09:54来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
马科母 . 麦当娜曾说:“市场营销策划是确认和预测客户需求以及提供帮助的管理过程。”
 
彼特曾在TMA营销手册中提到:“优化统筹生产过程可以充分利用有价值的资源把产品放在目标市场上定位,从而可达到目标,然后评估此次操作成功之处。”
 
优秀诗人. 安德鲁. 莫逊曾说:“我们生活在一个信息交流方式不断变化的年代....。现在的传统艺术家为了能够留住他们的顾客必须要比以前更加用心制作,当艺术出现紧急状况时,必须要联想到发展艺术和群众之间关系的重要性。彼此之间的关系永远不会是一层不变的。群众不能想当然.....。还有更多的群众—由我们去吸引他们。”
 
关于营销和扩增消费者的真实挑战目的是计划用这样的方式实行此计划可以确信消费者的需求和最新资源信息是符合实际的,确保你已成为个体或组织中的一员。一项不符实际的营销战略或计划不会在本文中出现。
 
什么是策略— What is Strategy?
 
对策略的最基本定义是:策略意味着不同的事物对应不同的人。
 
“没有单一的公认的定义。”Mintzberg &Quinn(1991)
 
“策略”一词最初来源于古希腊用于军事上的“strategos”:最开始它是一个角色—管理军队的将军。之后策略变成了“常规的计划”。
 
 “Marketing is the management process which identifies, anticipates and supplies customer requirements” Malcolm McDonald
 
“A co-ordinated process which makes the best use of available resources to present a product proposition to a target market in order to achieve objectives, and then evaluating how successfully this has been done”. Peter Verwey, TMA Marketing Manual
 
“We live in an age when methods of communication are changing more rapidly than ever before…. a time when the traditional arts must work harder than ever to secure their audience and when the emerging arts must think imaginatively to develop the crucial relationship between art and audience. That relationship is never static. Audiences cannot be taken for granted….The wider audience is out there—it is up to us to tempt them in”. Andrew Motion, Poet Laureate.
 
The true challenge of marketing and audience development is planning strategically in a way which will ensure that the plan that emerges is realistic to the needs, wants and resources you have to hand as an individual or an organisation. An unrealistic marketing strategy or plan is not worth the paper it is written on.
 
什么是策略—What is Strategy?
 
There is an inherent problem of defining strategy: strategy means different things to different people.
 
" There is no single, universally accepted definition". Mintzberg & Quinn (1991)
 
The Roots of strategy come from- Ancient Greek military usage ‘strategos’:
 
Initially it was a role - the general in command of an army. Later strategy became "the art of the general".
 
By the time of Percales (450 BC) it had become a recognised "managerial skill";
 
By the time of Alexander (300 BC) strategy was: "the skill of employing forces to overcome opposition and create a unified system of global governance" Evered (1980)
 
Modern business usage i.e. ‘Corporate’ Strategy has become a metaphorical extension of the ancient & modern (military concept).
 
There are many comparative definitions of strategy, here are just a few: "(strategy) is the determination of the basic long term goals and objectives of an enterprise, and the adoption of the courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out those goals." Chandler, A.D (1962) Business historian Chandler subscribes to the view that strategy is as much about defining goals and objectives as it is about providing the means for achieving them.
 
Kenneth Andrews (1987), distinguishes between corporate strategy which is the lead strategy, and business strategy, a secondary, yet vital, aspect of corporate strategy:"...a pattern of decisions ... (which represent) ... the unity, coherence and internal constituency of a company's strategic decisions that position a company in its environment and give the firm its identity, its power to mobilise its strengths, and its likelihood of success in the marketplace."
 
By comparison, Ansoff and McDonnell (1990), separate strategy (concerned with means) from goal-setting (concerned with ends). They define strategic management as: "a systematic approach for managing strategic change which consists of the following:
 
1. positioning of the firm through strategy and capability planning;
 
2. real-time strategic response through issue management;
 
3. systematic management of resistance during strategic implementation."
 
Cole, (1997) proposes a working definition of strategic management to be: "a process, directed by top management, to determine the fundamental aims or goals of the organisation, and ensure a range of decisions which will allow for the achievement of those aims or goals in the long-term, whilst providing for adaptive responses in the short term.
 
Definitions of strategy fall into five categories with differing areas of emphasis:
 
· A plan: “a consciously intended course of action”.
 
· A ploy: “a manoeuvre intended to outwit a competitor”.
 
· A pattern: underpinning “a stream of actions”.
 
· A position: a deliberate stance taken in relation to the environment.
 
· A perspective: an all embracing way of thinking about the organisation and its approach to the world.
 
Most ‘strategies’ mix elements of the five aspects at one and the same time.
 
“A strategy is the pattern or plan that integrates an organisation’s major goals, policies and action(s)...into a cohesive whole”. (Quinn 1980)
 
市场营销计划—Marketing Plans and Planning
 
A marketing plan has been defined as:
 
“ A written statement of the marketing aims of a company, including a statement of the products, targets for sales, market shares and profits, promotional and advertising strategies, pricing policies, distribution channels etc. with precise specification of timescales, individual responsibilities etc”. (Masner, 1988)
 
To achieve this marketing plan, the organisation will have to go through a number of stages which take the form of questions, as follows:
 
Where are we now? - the analysis of the current marketing situation.
 
Where do we want to be in the future? - setting the objectives.
 
How are we going to get there? – creating the strategy
 
How will we know when we get there? - Monitoring and evaluation.
 
执行市场营销计划的过程—The marketing planning process
 
Strategic Marketing Planning takes time, but is well worth the effort the process can be split into four clearly defined areas, it is useful to think of the effective marketing process as a triangle. The more time spent at the beginning on the foundations of the strategy, the analysis and planning stages, the stronger the top of the triangle, the communications and action that ensue. The marketing plan is achieved at the end of the planning process and should be a short, working, summary document of all the environment analysis which precedes it.
 
一般营销计划的格式—Format of a typical marketing plan
 
1. INTRODUCTION
 
2. OBJECTIVES—Company mission statement.
 
Aim = the ends, Objectives = the means.
 
3. PRODUCT / SERVICE MARKET BACKGROUND—present market overview (marketing audit).Sales summary, market research and analysis.
 
4. SWOT / PEST ANALYSIS—company SWOT and competitor SWOT. SWOT analysis is sometimes presented as a situational analysis (of where would we like to be in the future?).
 
6. MARKETING STRATEGY—target market segments, basis of competition USP (unique selling point).Detailed plan of action, tasks, measurable outputs with timescales and responsibilities.
 
7. MARKETING MIX—promotional objectives, promotional plan and budget / costs. Pricing strategies and distribution arrangements.
 
8. STATEMENT OF EXPECTED SALES—sales forecasts for each target market.
 
9. CONTROL AND EVALUATION—a statement of action necessary if things are going out of control.
 
市场营销计划的利益—Benefits of marketing planning stem
 
Better anticipation of change and less vulnerability to the unexpected.
 
A long term perspective and proactive responses to environmental changes.
 
Acceptance of the need for change and preparedness to meet change.
 
Fewer bad decisions when taken by surprise.
 
Greater inter-functional co-ordination
 
Better communication and less conflict between individuals.
 
Minimum waste and duplication of resources.
 
The existence of a structure around which to manage.
 
商业与商业之间的市场营销—Business to business marketing
 
Business-to-business marketing is the marketing of goods and services to businesses in order to keep those companies operating. The most common business-to-business markets are manufacturers, resellers, the government and non-profit institutions. Most businesses that fall into these categories do make some money off of a consumer base; however, the majority of their capital is made off of other businesses. The biggest differences between business-to-business and business-to-consumer marketing are the types of goods and services being marketed and the types of entities the goods and services are being marketed to. Business-to-business marketers promote goods and services that will help other companies run. Some of the things businesses produce for other businesses include equipment, components, raw materials, processing services and supplies. In addition, because business-to-business marketers target only other companies, they have a significantly more targeted market than business-to-consumer marketers. Even when marketing very specific products for a fairly small subset of individuals, the latter type of marketer has a far larger audience than the former. Business-to-business marketing is currently one of the fastest-growing areas of marketing. As technology brings more businesses together, companies are beginning to court each other far more aggressively. And as technology makes the world a smaller place, it becomes more important for marketing and sales professionals to understand and implement the principles of business-to-business marketing.
 
商业与客户之间的营销—BUISNESS TO CONSUMER MARKETING
 
Selling to businesses vs. selling to the consumer
 
There are six key factors that set business-to-business marketing apart from consumer marketing:
 
1. The business buyer wants to buy. Most consumer advertising offers people products they might enjoy but don’t really need. How many subscription promotions, for example, sell publications that the reader truly could not live without? If we subscribe, we do so for pleasure - not because the information offered is essential to our day-to-day activity.
 
But in business-to-business marketing, the situation is different. The business buyer wants to buy. Indeed, all business enterprises must routinely buy products and services that help them stay profitable, competitive, and successful. The proof of his is the existence of the purchasing agent, whose sole function is to purchase things.
 
2. The business buyer is sophisticated. Business-to-business copy talks to a sophisticated audience. Your typical reader has a high interest in - and understanding of - your product (or at least of the problem it solves).
 
Importantly, the reader usually knows more about the product and its use than you do. It would be folly, for example, to believe that a few days spent reading about mainframe computers will educate you to the level of your target prospect - a systems analyst with six or seven years experience. (This realization makes business-to-business writers somewhat more humble than their consumer counterparts.)
 
The sophistication of the reader requires the business-to-business copywriter to do a tremendous amount of research and digging into the market, the product, and its application. The business audience does not respond well to slogans or oversimplification.
 
3. The business buyer will read a lot of copy. The business buyer is an information-seeker, constantly on the lookout for information and advice that can help the buyer do the job better, increase profits, or advance his career.
 
“Our prospects are turned off by colorful, advertising-type sales brochures,” says the marketing manager of a company selling complex ‘systems’ software products to large IBM data centers. “They are hungry for information and respond better to letters and bulletins that explain, in fairly technical terms, what our product is and how it solves a particular data-center problem.”
 
Don’t be afraid to write long copy in mailers, ads, and fulfillment brochures. Prospects will read your message - if it is interesting, important, and relevant to their needs. And don’t hesitate to use informational pieces as response hooks for ads and mailers. The offer of a free booklet, report, or technical guide can still pull well - despite the glut of reading matter clogging the prospect’s in-basket.(责任编辑:felicia)


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