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Law Essay:犯罪特征比较 Comparison of Criminal Traits

时间:2018-06-11 11:16来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
龙勃罗梭在犯罪学中开创了一门新学科,将身体异常与犯罪联系在一起。据说某些属性是生物劣势的结果,导致了犯罪的生活。一项观察性研究解释了来自坎特伯雷基督教堂大学的犯罪分子和心理工作人员组成的“大量照片”。独立t检验表明,两组在体格特征和罪犯等级方面无显著性差异。这些发现与先前在该领域的研究相联系。
龙勃罗梭是最著名的学科是犯罪人类学的创始人;与“出生的罪犯”相关的心理和生理特征的研究。发表了一个著名的犯罪人,他把犯罪行为归咎于“返祖”,这是一种遗传的状态,罪犯在这一过程中表现出对原始人类的进化。,罪犯基本上是一个与病理和返祖特性有关的生活异常。在研究了66名已故罪犯之后,他编制了一个假定与犯罪行为相关的身体特征列表。
 
Abstract 摘要
 
Cesare Lombroso’s (1960) Criminal Man led to a new discipline in criminology, placing a link between physical anomalies and crime. Certain attributes were said to be the result of a biologically inferior presence which led to a life of crime (Ellwood, 1912). An observational study interpreted a number of ‘mugshots’ made up of criminals and Psychology staff from Canterbury Christ Church University. Independent t-tests revealed that there was no difference between the two groups in terms of physical characteristics and ‘criminal’ rating. These findings tie in with previous research in the field (Goring, 1972; Saladin, Zalman & Breen 1988).
 
COMPARING THE PREVALENCE OF ‘CRIMINAL TRAITS’ BETWEEN CONVICTED CRIMINALS AND PSYCHOLOGY STAFF 罪犯与心理工作人员“犯罪特征”的比较
 
Cesare Lombroso (2006) is best known as the founder of the discipline criminal anthropology; the study of mental and physical traits associated with the ‘born criminal’. Lombroso published Criminal Man (2006), a famous study in which he attributed criminal behaviour to ‘Atavism’, an inherited condition in which offender’s demonstrated evolutionary throwbacks to more primitive humans. According to Lombroso (2006) the criminal was fundamentally a living anomaly concerned with pathological and atavistic characteristics (Ellwood, 1912). After studying 66 deceased criminals, Lombroso (2006) compiled a list of physical features assumed to be associated with criminal behaviour. Traits included asymmetrical faces and excessive body hair. A person was thought to be a criminal if they processed 4 or more traits.
 
Charles B. Goring (1972) subjected 37 of Lombroso’s (2006) characteristics to empirical testing and compared 2,348 London convicts with a control group of young Englishmen. Goring (1972) found little support for Lombroso’s work, instead suggesting criminal behaviour is simply an inherited lack of common sense. Support for Lombroso comes from a study by Hooton (1939), in which 13,873 male prisoners were compared with 3,023 males from a general sample. Hooton attributed criminal behaviour to biological inferiority, assigning a number of features such as sloping foreheads to criminals. Hooton was, however, criticised for his circular reasoning. Criminals were assumed to be physically mediocre and those features which distinguished criminals from others could be classified as precursors of biological inferiority.(责任编辑:cinq)


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