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代写美国essay:The flaws in American democracy(3)

时间:2018-10-16 17:26来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

 
Interest groups are a form of popular participation advocated by pluralistic democracy. Different from general democracy principle of a simple majority, pluralist democracy view in order to ensure the freedom and personal property, must prevent majority tyranny, in a complex pluralistic society, the individual direct participation is impossible, only with the identity of the members of the organization or institution, thus allowing different interest groups to express their demands is a reflection of democracy. The final decision will be a compromise between different interest groups, which ensures fairness. In practice, however, it is debatable whether the competition of active interest groups actually prevents both majority and minority tyranny. First of all, interest groups are also organized by the bureaucratic model. Each interest group has its own leadership, usually those outstanding figures in the society, but rarely the ordinary people. It can be said that "the status quo of American society is dominated by the intelligentsia, the media, the urban elites, and the liberal voices. The existence of interest groups reduces the opportunity for ordinary people to directly reflect their own will. Second, power among interest groups is not equal, so there is no guarantee of fairness in the process of wrestling. Especially when it comes to the competition of economic interests, organizations that are strong enough to provide large amounts of "political contributions" in presidential campaigns can gain a favorable position. This is a big drawback of party politics, exacerbated by America's extensive lobbying by lobbyists.
 
In addition, the excessive protection of interest groups, especially trade unions and other non-profit organizations, which are designed to promote public welfare, also has a series of consequences. The affirmative action movement that began in the 1960s, for example, was a response to the growing movement of women and the black movement. The policy is designed to take care of minorities and women, and to compensate them for the pain they have suffered in history with practical benefits. Specific measures include expanding the percentage of blacks and women admitted to schools, companies and others. This policy, of course, has the support of American citizens. But over time, it was found that the policy actually created a kind of "reverse discrimination" that put most people other than these people at a competitive disadvantage. In the United States, for example, as a social organization to protect workers' rights, the United States has numerous labor unions of all sizes, such as the united auto workers union, the cleaner's union and so on. These unions have formed a network to link workers organically. But Americans' indulgence of unions has created many problems, both for the sake of democracy and for the protection of the weak. For example, the labor union constantly demands to improve the wage level of the workers for the protection of their basic rights and interests, so as to shape a group of high wage rate and low efficiency. American workers are less competitive, and the decline of traditional American manufacturing has been linked to overprotective labor unions. When the interests of a group are put before the interests of society as a whole, the original intention of defending democracy is lost. In specific policy choices, whether to follow "equal opportunity" or "compensatory equality" is a major challenge for democracy. Problems in the American political process reflect the dilemma of choice.(责任编辑:quanlei_cai)


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